CLIPPER SHIPS and the GREAT TEA RACE of 1866

I hope you’ve had a chance to read my blog about THE JOHN COMPANY, formally known as the British East India Company, which led the trading of tea and other exotic goods from the Far East to Europe,  Great Britain and the New World. For more than 200 years the British East India Company dominated trading. No longer a commercial venture, more of a political one and a threat to the British government, the company became too powerful and was dissolved in 1834.

In order to control this vast empire, the East India Company, prior to 1834, maintained an impressive fleet of ships.  Built in India, these ships, known as “Indiamen”, were huge warships, not only carrying goods and passengers, but fitted out for war.  For what they did, sailing millions of miles and bringing millions of pounds of goods into port, they were exceptional.

Unloading tea crates on the East India docks. Early 1800s

Life on board, however, was quite harsh.  One story written by an officer tells what life was like on one of these “Indiamen”.  The voyage from London to China and back to England took thirteen months and two weeks. The cramped accommodations offered no privacy or room to move.  There was never enough water or fresh food and scurvy took the lives of many sailors and passengers.  Petty thefts occurred daily, with the accused being flogged or tied to the shrouds.  As bad as things were during the day, they were worse at night with no lamps or lanterns allowed.  Fire, shipwrecks and pirating were the biggest enemies of these mammoth ships.

Meanwhile, in Baltimore, Maryland, a shipyard created a ship that was not only fast, but with a cargo hold big enough to carry a significant amount of freight.  These ships came to be known as Clipper Ships … “clip” was slang for run or fly quickly. The design of these vessels, with their massive sails, enabled them to “clip” over the waves at a great speed, which caused a sensation in the shipping industry.  Now ships could travel at speeds of up to 30 kilometers an hour … and traders could deliver goods faster and the freshest tea possible.  Clipper ships became the new force.

When the Company was dissolved in 1834, Great Britain introduced the Navigation Act, which meant anyone, including non-English companies, could bring goods into a British port.  Finally, there would be competition. The Indiamen ships continued to be in service, but the East India Company soon began to see a rise in competition from these Clipper Ships, which would render their slow ships obsolete.  Speed was now the name of the game.

The Tea Clipper, Serica. 1863

At first, the Company wasn’t worried about these little American ships.  The Indiamen had dominated the shipping industry for centuries.  But very quickly these fast, lightweight American ships began to cut into their trade and their profits.  Although the Clippers were transporting all sorts of cargo, it was “tea” that caused the most interest.  The American Clipper, Oriental, made an unprecedented trip from New York to Hong Kong in only 81 days … an unheard of time in 1850.  She was immediately offered the job of transporting 1650 tons of tea from Hong Kong to London, which she did in only 99 days.

The British shipbuilders immediately began building their own Clippers, producing more than 100 ships, five of which became the most famous of all.  At that point, the race was on!  The competitive spirit sprung into action immediately because whoever could bring tea to market first would gain a monetary incentive.  Crews began competing with each other, not only as a test of their sailing, but also how quickly and efficiently the tea could be loaded onto their ships . . . . because they couldn’t set sail from China until every tea chest was on board.

The image above outlines how to efficiently load crates of tea without wasting space. This illustration shows more than 12,000 chests of tea stowed below deck.

The Clipper ship races began in 1850 and lasted only 20 years, but while they did, they caused incredible excitement.  The ships would thunder down through the South China Sea and into the Indian Ocean, then race to round the southern-most tip of Africa at the Cape of Good Hope. From there, it was north across the Atlantic, past the Azores, and through the English Channel into the Thames.  In the Thames, they would need to be towed by tugs to reach the docks.

The most famous race of all took place in 1866.  By then, the American ships had dropped out, leaving just the English clippers to bring tea to market.  The headline in the DAILY TELEGRAPH announced “The Great Tea Race of 1866” with the main competitors being the Fiery Cross, the Ariel, the Taeping, the Serica and the Taitsing.

On May 30th, they all left China within hours of each other.  Once the ships left the docks in China, telegrams would be sent from each check-in point en route to England.  The Suez Canal was still under construction so around the Cape of Good Hope they ran, taking over three months to reach the English Channel.  A distance of over 14,000 miles.  At times they came close enough to one another to actually see the crews on the competing ship.  The Fiery Cross had the lead only 20 days out, with the Taeping and Ariel falling two days behind and the Serica and the Taitsing a day behind them.  But the weather around the Cape of Good Hope evened things out.  It wasn’t long before all ships were within 24 hours of each other.  By the time they reached the Azores, they were all within sight of each other.

In addition to the bragging rights, the Captain and the crew would be rewarded for their hard work, earning up to sixpence per pound of tea.  So the incentive to win was great.  The British newspapers reported on the race almost daily.  With the changing weather, shifts in the wind and typhoons, except for the Taitsang, which had now fallen too far behind, the ships were staying neck-to-neck.  Eventually, the Taeping pulled out ahead and seemed to be the clear winner, but it was the Ariel to first spot the Cornish coast.  The last leg of the race was in sight.  But even as the Ariel was at full sail, the Taeping was closing in on her.  Both ships needed tugboats to get them down the Thames.

Crowds of people who had been following the race lined the docks, with merchants ready to be the first to announce their tea had arrived.  The Ariel was headed for the East India dock, while the Taeping was headed for the London dock.  With both ships being taken in tow at the same time going up the Thames, there was concern that the race would be a dead heat.  Knowing this, the owners of the Ariel and the Taeping agreed that whichever ship docked first would claim the prize, with no dispute between them.  Which ship would it be?

It was the Taeping who reached the dock first, with a mere 20 minute lead.  The Ariel was second and the Serica came in an hour later taking third place. No race before or since ever had a narrower margin between ships.  And in the spirit of goodwill, the crew of the Taeping shared the prize money equally with the Ariel.

The Great Tea Race of 1866 was the most famous tea race of all.  This was also the last year that  a bonus was paid for the first ship to arrive in London.  For although the ships were fast, the first cargo of tea from China had actually arrived two weeks earlier, in only 66 days, by a steamship, the Erl King.  This steamer was not part of the Clipper ship race, but the fact that it was faster than the Clippers changed the way tea was shipped from then on.  Although most of the Clipper ships remained in service for a few years, with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which was not suitable for them, steamships now offered a more efficient and less expensive way of shipping tea and other cargo.

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References:  Homeofohm, Teamuse, Sweetteajunkie, Wikipedia, Smithsonian, Harvard Library, Gutenberg, South Bay Sail, Tea.Co.UK, Vahdam,
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TEA … a Primer

Such a simple word “tea” … which provides us with such a simple beverage.  Why then, oh why, do so many people make it seem so complicated?   Do we really need to know about the origin, production and preparation of the leaf?  Can’t we just enjoy our cuppa without being told its pedigree?  It doesn’t have to be complicated.  But if you want a bit more information, let me break it down for you as simply as possible . . .

All tea comes from one plant, the Camellia Sinensis.  The Camellia Sinensis is an evergreen plant, which resembles its cousin, the azalea bush.  Yes, there are over 3,000 varieties of this plant, but it still is the leaf of this plant which, after plucking, withering, firing and sorting, gives us “tea”.

Although the plant can grow to the height of 25′, for ease of plucking, the plants are kept to a height of 3′ or 4′.  Bending over tea bushes, plucking the new growth can be a ‘back breaking’ job, so the plants are pruned to this reasonable height.   Picking or “plucking” takes place three times a year, taking only the new growth.  This growth is called a “flush” and is referred to as first flush, second flush and autumnal.

Tea is plucked mostly by women – smaller hands and feet and less apt to trample on the plants – who pass this profession on to their daughters.  Men are generally considered too ‘clumsy’ and work in the fields and factories.  Successful plantations today take care of their workers and provide everything from health care to housing, schooling and subsidized food.


So, where is tea grown? 
Like wine, tea grows best at higher altitudes with an afternoon cloud cover.  The soil should be rich with lots of moisture and the climate should be fairly consistent.  The farms where tea is grown are called “plantations” or tea “estates”.  Although tea is grown primarily in China, Japan, India, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Kenya and southern parts of Russia, you’ll find plantations now in South Carolina, Hawaii and even an experimental estate in England.

Types of Tea
Depending on who you talk to, there are between three to seven types of tea.  Those categories are:  white, green, oolong, pouchong, black and pu-erh.   Tisanes are herbal beverages which a lot of people call “tea”, but they really aren’t “tea” because they do not contain any leaves from the Camellia Sinensis plant.  But let’s keep it simple and just talk about the three basic types:  white, green, and black.

Production for each type of tea differs slightly, although the process is the same.  From plucking in the fields, the leaves are then withered to reduce moisture.  From withering, the leaves are heat-fired to stop oxidation.  They may then be crushed, or rolled before being sorted for grading.

Green tea is becoming more and more popular as people realize its health benefits.   Once produced only in China and Japan, green tea is now being produced in India and Sri Lanka as well.  After plucking, the tea is withered slightly to reduce the moisture and then carefully heat treated to stop oxidation.  In Japan, green tea is steamed to stop the oxidation process, keeping its vibrant green color.  This steaming process is why Japanese green teas are more vegetal tasting.  In China, woks are used and this process gives Chinese greens a nuttier, slightly sweeter aftertaste.

Green tea lends itself to scenting or flavoring very nicely.  You’ll find lots of flavored green teas on the market today – from florals to fruity blends, as well as some spices.  If you enjoy your cuppa sweetened, green teas are fine, but, please NO milk!

Black tea is the one that most of us are familiar with.  I’m sure we’ve all grown up with a box of Lipton or Tetley or even Yorkshire Gold tea bags in the cupboard.  Grown mostly in India and Sri Lanka (Ceylon), leaves designated for black teas are spread out to dry (withered) after plucking to remove most of the moisture.  The leaves are then heat treated, rolled and ready for sorting.

Black teas are sold as “orthodox” (large, unbroken leaves) or as “ctc” (smaller particles called “cut, torn, curled”).   Black teas can be from a specific estate or blended, as in English Breakfast, or flavored.  The most popular flavored black tea is, of course, Earl Grey.  Black teas are generally enjoyed with milk and sugar.

White tea is very delicate and generally plucked from the finest bushes.  Only the top buds of the plant are plucked – before dawn, before the buds open.   As a result, White tea can be very rare and can be very expensive.  At one time, white tea was thought to be most appreciated in its purest form and not scented or blended.  Today, however, you’ll find all sorts of scented white teas available from tea purveyors.

Chinese emperors would only allow young virginal girls with gloved hands
to pluck their teas, placing them in a solid gold bowl.
These became ‘tribute’ teas or ‘imperial’ teas and reserved
only for emperors and visiting dignitaries. 

 

Caffeine Content
First of all, did you know that caffeine is a natural substance produced by the plant to ward off parasites?  Also, the caffeine content can be manipulated somewhat by the grower.  Nigel Melican, research scientist and President of the European Tea Association, states, “Caffeine varies in the fresh green leaf depending on the fineness of the pluck.  For any tea, be it black, green or white, the caffeine is highest in the bud.  Silver needle (white tea) is 100% bud and has the highest caffeine content.”

Over 85% of Americans consume significant amounts of caffeine every day.  The Mayo Clinic claims that most adults can handle up to 400 milligrams of caffeine a day without any side effects.  But if you are prone to medical problems, or sleep issues, and would like to cut down on your caffeine intake, you might want to know just how much caffeine you’re drinking.  On average, keep in mind tea has half the caffeine that coffee has and herbal tisanes have no caffeine.

Is caffeine addictive?  Research says “no”, but caffeine does stimulate the nervous system and most of us do crave that alert feeling that comes after having it.  I believe it’s better to understand the caffeine content in a cuppa if we start with coffee …

On average an 8oz. cup of Starbucks coffee has 180 mg of caffeine.  Dunkin Donuts has a little less with 150 mg of caffeine.  Black tea, on average, has 48 mg of caffeine, while green tea has even less caffeine than black tea, with an average of 28 mg.  White tea can be deceiving with more caffeine than green, but less than black.  Again, these numbers are for 8oz.  The average person uses a 14oz. mug, so increase the numbers.

Loose Leaf vs Tea Bags?  
Some people think loose leaf tea is too expensive.  Loose leaf tea may seem to cost a bit more, but when you break down the price per cup, its actually less expensive than you think.  And, if like me, you get a second infusion (and sometimes a third) from your leaf, that cuts the cost in half.  The secret, of course, is to start with good quality tea.

Prices for bagged teas can be all over the place.  And there are some beautifully packaged ‘bagged’ teas available.  But remember, you are also paying for the packaging.  As a result, your cost per cup may be more than loose leaf tea.

Is loose leaf tea more difficult to prepare?  I don’t think so at all.  The process is exactly the same except for one thing.  With loose leaf tea, you have to put the “tea” into something to infuse it.  The bagged tea is already “in” something.  That’s the only difference.  Temperature of the water should be the same.  Steeping time should be the same.  But with loose leaf tea you are going to get a better tasting cuppa.

How to Make the Perfect Cup
Hopefully, now that you have some basic information about tea, you’ll want to start enjoying it.  No, its not complicated.  Want to know more?  Just click on the link … A Perfect Cuppa.

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Once upon a time in a land far, far away, legend says that in China 5000 years ago the then Emperor Shen Nung, who was referred to as the emperor of agriculture, was sitting in his garden boiling his drinking water.  Emperor Nung believed that boiling drinking water destroyed the bacteria that made people sick, and 5000 years ago that was quite a radical way of thinking.  Some people thought he was a bit strange, but he was, after all, an emperor, so people followed his beliefs.  As he was sitting under this large, beautiful tree boiling his water, the wind picked up and a few leaves blew into the pot.  He watched them for a few moments, contemplated it, and always eager to try new things, he tasted it.  And that was how tea was discovered!

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Want to learn even more? You might be interested in how “tea” got its name …  “What’s In a Name”

 

DARJEELING

Before I became involved with tea, I have to admit I’d never heard of Darjeeling … not the tea, nor the place.  When, on the few occasions I bought tea, which was just scanning the boxes on the supermarket shelves and picking up a familiar brand name, or whatever was on sale, never would I buy a tea from a region or country, or even a particular type of tea.  That all changed, however, when I became immersed in TEA … its culture, its history, its variety and the passion which surrounds it.  And it began when I started visiting these countries which produce it.

One of the most memorable places I had the privilege to visit was Darjeeling in India.  Yes, Darjeeling is a tea, but it is also a place.  “The Land of the Thunderbolt” or Dorje-Ling is what it is called in Tibetan.  Situated in the northeast corner of India, high in the Himalayan mountains and bordered by Tibet, Butan and China, this is a place of magnificent beauty.  With its slightly acidic, but rich soil, abundant rainfall, high elevation and afternoon cloud cover, its no wonder that some of the best teas in the world are grown here.  Known as the “Champagne of Tea”, Darjeeling teas can command some very high price tags.

I’m sure the numbers have changed since I visited, but at that time there were approximately 80 tea gardens in the Darjeeling region.  They ranged in size from small family-run estates to large corporate-owned plantations.  I had the opportunity to visit quite a few estates at that time and was astounded at how each one was unique, with its own energy, and philosophy, notwithstanding the pride that comes from working with people who share a single passion.

Jayshree Tea Estate, Darjeeling

Of course, we were visitors from the United States who were interested in buying tea and, because of that, were treated as rock stars.  I won’t deny that.  But we were also able to experience the beauty of the land, the generosity and warmth of its people and the vibrancy of the area.

Strolling through any of the estates, the landscape is breathtakingly beautiful.  An undulating, almost rolling typography of tea bushes surround you, sloping down the terrain.  And the majesty of the snow-capped mountains in the distance is magical.

The work is difficult and the days are long for those who work in the tea industry.  With their nimble fingers, the tea pluckers are generally women, who go into the fields in the morning, some with little ones in tow.  Quite a few are armed with umbrellas, most wear “Wellies” on their feet and all have baskets strapped around their heads.  They work til noon, break for lunch, and then are back adeptly plucking two-leaves and a bud at the waist-high bushes until 5pm.  They wait on the dirt paths for the trucks to come and weigh their baskets, before they go home, hot and tired from a long day in the fields.

A very proud plantation worker displaying his commemorative buckle.

Men are most often in the fields, pruning, planting and tending to the tea plants, or in the laboratories and factories, weighing, withering, sorting and packaging the teas for market.  And children, for the most part, are in estate-provided schools.  Life as a plantation worker is not easy.  The pay is relatively small when you consider the selling price of the tea.  Although the plantations were started by the British, the plantations are now owned by Indians.  Housing is provided for the workers with each home having a garden plot to grow veggies.  In addition to their wage, workers receive a small allowance to purchase food and supplies.

The history of tea in this area goes back to the early 1800s when the East India Company lost its monopoly on the China tea trade.  The whole of Great Britain was, by now, addicted to tea, and the British government had to do something.  Desperately trying to establish tea gardens in the northern regions of India, the East India Company (aka the John Company),  with Camellia Sinensis seeds, started planting.  By 1866, there were 39 British-owned and operated tea gardens.  Following Indian Independence in 1947, the British began to sell their gardens to Indians and the Tea Act in 1953 regulated the industry.

Authentic Darjeeling tea is unique and cannot be grown or manufactured anywhere else in the world.  And now Darjeeling tea has a ‘Protected Geographical status’ within the European Union, USA and Australia.  As Roquefort is to cheese and Champagne is to wine, Darjeeling now is to tea. These products with their individual characteristics specific to the particular region in which they are produced have been awarded a certificate protecting them from exploitation.   Consumers knowing this can now be guaranteed that they are getting genuine Darjeeling. This helps in ensuring the production and sale of Darjeeling tea all over the world.  And to identify authentic Darjeelings, a logo was also created showing the profile of a woman holding two leaves and a bud.

To keep up with the changing marketplace, today you’ll find a lot of the tea estates have become organic, biodynamic and/or Fair Trade, with certifications from the Tea Board of India.  Whether you call them tea gardens, estates or plantations, here is the list for you of the currently operating tea estates.  Quite a few, are now offering “home stays”, tea tours and camping opportunities.  If you are interested in adventure travel and experiencing something other than the familiar, I couldn’t recommend a trip to Darjeeling more highly.  It’s an experience  you will never forget.

When I started tasting different teas, from different countries, and different regions within those countries, I was changed forever.  Although tea is the most popular beverage in the world, except for water, of course, it doesn’t stop at that.  With its unique terroir, Darjeelings have earned the name “The Champagne of Teas” for a reason.  With their medium body, identifiable muscatel flavor and hint of spice, they are exceptional.  And, I haven’t even touched on the nuances from the first flush to the autumnals.  From which estate, do I think grows the best tea?  You’ll just have to try them all yourself to find out.

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Darjeeling East:  Arya Tea Estate, Chongtong Tea Estate , Dhooteriah Tea Estate , Kalej Valley Tea Estate , Liza Hill Tea Estate , Lingia Tea Estate, Marybong Tea Estate , Mim Tea Estate, Darjeeling Mim, Orange Valley (Bloomfield Tea Estate) , Pussimbing Tea Estate , Risheehat Tea Estate, Rungmook / Cedars Tea Estate , Tumsong Tea Estate

Darjeeling West:  Badamtam Tea Estate, Bannockburn Tea Estate , Barnesbeg Tea Estate , Ging Tea Estate , Happy Valley Tea Estate, North Tukvar, Pandam Tea Estate , Phoobshering Tea Estate, Puttabong Tea Estate , Rangaroon Tea Estate, Rungneet Tea Estate, Singtom Tea Estate, Soom Tea Estate, Steinthal Tea Estate

Kurseong (North):  Ambootia Tea Garden, Balasun Tea Garden, Eden Vale Tea Garden, Dilaram Tea Garden, Margaret’s Hope Tea Garden, Moondakotee Tea Garde, Oaks Tea Garden, Ringtong Tea Garden, Springside Tea Garden

Kurseong South:  Castleton Tea Garden, Giddapahar Tea Garden, Goomtee Tea Garden, Jogmaya Tea Garden, Jungpana Tea Garden, Longview (High Lands) Tea Garden, Mahalderam Tea Garden, Makaibari Tea Garden, Mohan Majhua Tea Garden, Monteviot Tea Garden, Mullootar Tea Garden, Narbada Majhua Tea Garden, Nurbong Tea Garden, Rohini Tea Garden, Selim Hill Tea Garden, Seepoydhura Tea Garden, Sivitar Tea Garden, Tindharia Tea Garden

Mirik:  Gopaldhara Tea Estate, Ghayabaree and Millikthong Tea Estate, Okayti Tea Estate, Phuguri Tea Estate, Seeyok Tea Estate, Singbulli Tea Estate, Thurbo Tea Estate

Upper Fagu:  Avongrove Tea Garden, Chamong Tea Garden, Dhajea Tea Garden, Nagri Tea Garden, Nagri Farm Tea Garden, Selimbong Tea Garden, Sungma Tea Garden, Turzum Tea Garden, Teesta Valley Tea Garden, Tukdah Tea Garden, Upper Fagu Tea Garden

Teesta:  Ambiok (Hillton), Gielle Tea Garden, Glenburn Tea Garden, Kumai (Snow View) Tea Garden, Lopchu Peshok Tea Garden, Namring and upper Namring Tea Garden, Runglee Rungliot Tea Garden, Samebeong Tea Garden

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References:  Margaret’s Hope Estate, Makaibari Estate, Wikipedia, Tea Board of India, Intelligent Legal Protection, Inside Darjeeling, Darjeeling Tourism,

LAPSANG SOUCHONG

Lapsang Souchong, the tea that infuses fear and terror into the most seasoned tea drinkers.  But why?

This time of year my tastes change and I begin looking for deeper, darker, richer flavors – regardless of what foods it might be.  Light, refreshing salads are gone from my table to be replaced by hearty soups and stews.  The seasons have changed.  The sun sets earlier and earlier every day.  The days are cooler and quite often damp and at night I just want to curl up with a good book, a blanket  . . .  and a cup of Lapsang Souchong!

Have you ever been camping  . . .  especially in the Fall?  Is there anything more comforting and inviting than a campsite on a cool October morning when someone has just started the fire for breakfast  . . . or in the evening after a day of hiking and the smoky fire just envelops you.  You can’t help but be drawn to it.  The billows of heady, smoke that comes from a fire is so welcoming.  That same smoky flavor gets imparted into our food (and sometimes into our clothing) and we love it.  So why then do so many tea drinkers say “no thank you” to a cuppa Lapsang Souchong!

Lapsang Souchong … I just love the name!  It’s exotic, unique, rhythmic.  The name comes from the Chinese Fuzhou dialect combining “la” or “pine” and “sang” or “wood” with the size of the leaf, “souchong“, which is the largest or  third leaf in a fine pluck.  The trade name for this tea then became Lapsang Souchong or “smoky, piney large leaf” tea.

This  dark, rich black tea is said to have originated in the Wuyi Mountains of China, as so many distinguished teas have.  The legends about how this tea originated are many.  The one I like most says that during the Qing dynasty in the early 17th century, the Wuyi area was overrun with Manchu soldiers who were terrorizing the local villagers.  The tea growers were already selling teas to the Dutch by that time.  Gathering all their belongings to flea this invasion and not knowing how long they were going to be gone, the farmers quickly dried their tea leaves over open fires in order to speed up the drying process.   Throwing the tea leaves into sacks, they were then able to bury the sacks of teas to keep the soldiers from getting them.  When the farmers returned to their village, they found that their teas were dark and had a smoky flavor . . . ruined, or so they thought.  But to their surprise, not only did they preserve the tea leaves, the Dutch buyers actually liked the flavor better.

The truth, however, is that the Dutch had been importing Lapsang Souchong or bohea tea since long before then.  By the time the East India Company began trading in tea, Lapsang Souchong, was already being drunk in Europe . . .  and happened to be Princess Catherine of Braganza’s favorite tea.  It was, in fact, this Portuguese Princess who is credited with making tea the sought-after beverage of aristocrats in England.   Catherine had grown up drinking tea in Portugal, and in 1662, when she was betrothed to British Prince Charles, along with her other possessions was a chest of tea.  Then, as Queen Consort of England, she helped promote tea into upper-class society with her much-sought-after afternoon tea parties.

Loose Leaf Lapsang Souchong

Lapsang Souchong is available everywhere, on supermarket shelves, through Amazon and from your local tea purveyor.  If you are still unsure about whether or not you might like it, do yourself a favor and invest in the best quality you can find.  There are  ways to produce Lapsang Souchong, which I really don’t want to get into, using artificial smoke flavorings and additives, but you can still find high-quality Lapsang Souchong made the traditional way . . .  in China, in wooden smoking sheds.

After plucking, the large leaves are heated and rotated every 20 minutes until they are pliable.  They are then rolled and, after panfrying, are placed into wooden barrels and covered with canvas, until they are copper in color and have a pleasant fragrance.  The next step is to spray the tea leaves with water, place them into baskets over smoking pine fires to dry and absorb the smoke flavor.  Controlling the withering, oxidation as well as the amount and timing of smoke is critical to producing a great Lapsang Souchong.  A tea which I love.

In the culinary world, the complex piney flavor of Lapsang is a great flavor enhancer.  Add it as an ingredient in marinades or in your next dry rub for meats or fish, or toss a teaspoon into a pot of stew.  The richness and depth of flavor it imparts is wonderful.  Even vegetarian recipes can benefit from a bit of Lapsang Souchong.

Here are a couple of ideas for you.  For a dry rub, mix one tablespoon salt, 3 tablespoons each of brown sugar, paprika and Lapsang Souchong with 2 teaspoons black pepper and ground cumin.  Grind them all in a mill and keep in a closed jar in the cupboard until you’re ready to use.  Or try infusing olive oil with this tea to be used in marinades or to dress vegetables or fish – 2 teaspoons crushed Lapsang into 4 oz. of olive oil, let sit for a week or two and then strain out the tea leaves.  Wonderful!

But, of course, I divert from what is the best way to experience this dark, piney, smoky-flavored tea and that is in your cup!  Steep with boiling water for approximately 3 to 4 minutes.  No milk, no sugar, just hot, comforting and wonderful!!  And should you want to experience this full-bodied brew for yourself, I can recommend the following tea purveyors:

The Larkin Tea Company
Mrs. Kelly’s Teas
The Cozy Tea Cart
Upton Teas
The Tea House

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References:  Wikipedia, Vicony Teas, Boston Tea Party, New World Encyclopedia, Greenhalge,

THE BROWN BETTY

I become practically apoplectic when I watch someone prepare tea using a microwave, a mug and a teabag.  I want to shout “stop, what are you doing?”  But, of course, I don’t.  The reason why is because it really doesn’t matter to them that what they are doing is not preparing tea, but making some sort of hot beverage, quickly.  Am I a tea snob?  Some might say ‘yes’, but I don’t think so.  Would that same person think mixing a teaspoon of instant coffee powder into a mug of water and zapping that in the microwave is a good cup of coffee?  I hope not.

I love all things tea … from the origins of the leaf to the ritualistic preparations, the variety of ethnic traditions, as well as the fascinating accoutrements.  For preparation, the simple unadorned, unpretentious Brown Betty is one of my favorite teapots.  I know its a name that is familiar to a lot of tea drinkers, but I wonder if anyone knows how this modest, round-bellied pot got its name and why some devout tea drinkers think it the only vessel worthy of steeping a perfect cuppa.

Although quintessentially British, the origins of the teapot are actually Chinese.  As more and more tea was being imported from China into Europe and Great Britain beginning in the 1600s, a vessel in which to steep the tea became necessary.  The first teapot ever created was in China in the 15th century, but the Chinese primarily steep their tea individually in small porcelain bowls called gaiwans.  Europeans, however, wanted to steep larger quantities and demanded a more practical way of preparing and serving their tea.  Knowing this, the East India Company commissioned the Chinese to come up with a larger, more useful vessel.

Chinese artisans designed these pots, each with a spout, handle and lid. These vessels were small, unadorned, round pots, made from the red clay of the Yixing area … and ideal for preparing a good cuppa tea.  The teapots were packed in crates by the thousands and placed in the cargo holds in the bottom of the large sailing ships, which also helped to provide ballast, while the teas were then packed on top.  Everything was sure to arrive safely to ports throughout Europe and England.

Ming Dynasty Yixing Teapot

As we all know, tea was incredibly expensive at that time, and kept under lock and key, to be enjoyed only by the wealthy.  As tea pots started appearing, the aristocracy demanded these as well.  The Dutch were the first to request permission to try to reproduce these tea steeping ‘pots’.  In 1679 two potters from Delft sent a letter to the court of the Count of Holland stating: “we, associates, have discovered production techniques which make it possible to copy the teapots from the East Indies. We request permission to produce these pots for 15 years and to be the only ones to market them”.  But it was two silversmiths from Holland, brothers John and David Elers, who also saw the potential for this new industry and relocated to England to become potters.

In the Stoke-on-Trent area, the Elers brothers were able to find veins of fine red clay, the clay most like the red clay the Chinese were using.  The brothers then quickly and secretly established a factory in the area, and began producing some of the finest pottery to be found … some of which is on display today in the Victory Albert Museum in London.  Although their  “fine pottery” business was not financially profitable, they had a huge influence on the growth of this industry, making Staffordshire the ceramics capital of the world.

Two Teapots by the Elers Brothers 1627.  Photograph by David Jackson, CC BY-SA 2.0

As tea became more affordable, teapots became more in demand.  Artisans from Swinton pottery developed a unique glaze from iron and manganese that was brushed on the outside of the clay  pot. The excess glaze was allowed to run down the sides, creating an elegant streaky finish when it was fired.  That shiny brown glaze, referred to as the Rockingham glaze, in combination with the natural color of the clay, helped give the Brown Betty pot its name.

So, we’ve learned how “Brown”, became part of the name of this teapot, but what about “Betty”?

During the Victorian era, every affluent household had servants.  In the grander homes, there were servants who worked “downstairs” and servants who worked “upstairs”.   The “downstairs” servants generally were not known by their name and were usually referred to by their job, “cook” or “boots”, but the “upstairs” servants were well known to the lords and ladies of the house and would probably be referred to by a ‘nick name’.  MaryJane would become “Mary”.  Abigail would become “Abby”.  Elizabeth would become “Betty”.

The name Elizabeth, shortened to “Betty” was a very popular name then.  The hugely successful Betty’s Tearooms were begun (and still very popular today) by Swiss baker, Fritz Butzer, but there was no “Betty” in his family.  Perhaps he was inspired to name his tearoom for Betty Lupton, the queen of Harrogate, or the popular theater production about a maid named “Betty”, or could it have been “Betty” Rose, the granddaughter of his first investor in Betty’s Tearooms.  As Elizabeth was such a popular name, chances were that at least one servant was called “Betty” … and, “Betty” probably served tea.

By the mid-1800s, with many Staffordshire Pottery factories producing them, the teapot had evolved somewhat and became considerably more affordable.  And by 1926, it was estimated that the industry was producing approximately 500,000 Brown Betty Teapots per week … making it the most popular, widely used teapot in the country.

And what is it about this teapot that makes the Brown Betty my favorite pot for steeping tea?  Not particularly colorful or decorative, this unpretentious, utilitarian pot has a big round belly which allows the loose leaves to swirl around and infuse the water properly.  The clay retains the heat from the boiling water, holding the tea at the perfect temperature for me.  The handle is big and comfortable and the spout is dripless.  What more could anyone want in a teapot?

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References:  Hoteliers, Cauldon Ceramics, Wikipedia, VisitStoke, Bettys, Coffeeteaclub, thebrownbetty,

What’s In a Name?

TEA … what a strange name for a beverage.  A beverage which originated in China over 5,000 years ago.  A beverage which comes from infusing the leaves of a specific plant into hot water.  A beverage which has been drunk and enjoyed around the world for centuries.  Where did this simple name come from?

The word for “tea” can be quite different in many languages.  In China, the word for tea is “cha”.  In India and other Far East countries, the word for tea is very similar … “chai”.  In Great Britain and parts of Europe, however, the word for this amber-colored liquor is the word we in the U.S. use … “tea”.   How is it that this, the most popular beverage in the world, can have two completely different names?

Legend tells us that more than 5,000 years ago, the Chinese emperor, Shen Nung, was sitting under a tree in his garden boiling water when the wind picked up and leaves from the tree drifted down into his pot.  Intrigued by the fragrant aroma and beauty of the golden liquid, he drank the infusion and enjoyed it.  Tea has played a vital role in the Chinese culture ever since.

The Chinese character for tea is  .   Written from top to bottom, this calligraphic character is quite beautiful.  The top strokes, which I’ve always thought were shaped like a house, really represents “grass” or a “plant”.  Although Mandarin is the most common language in China, there are over 300 different languages and dialects.  In Mandarin Chinese this “house-shaped” character is pronounced “cha”.  In Min Chinese, however, this very same character is pronounced “te”.
Why is this important?  Because China is a very large country, with different languages spoken in different regions, and depending upon the port from which the tea was shipped, is how this beverage got its name.

China had two primary shipping locations:  Guangzhou (Canton) to the North, and Xiamen in Fujian Province, to the South.  If the tea leaves were exported from the northern route, they went overland, and they were referred to by their Mandarin name, “cha”.  If the very same leaves were exported from the southern route, they went by sea and were referred to by their Min name, “te”.

The northern route, known as the Tea-Horse Road, traveled over 6000 rugged miles through Tibet and on to India, eventually linking up with the infamous Silk Road.  Ultimately this route became vital for, not only trade, but for the sharing of information, religion, and the arts.  The Silk Road crossed into the Middle East, where some goods, including tea … “cha” … were loaded onto ships destined for Mediterranean ports.  With the introduction of the faster and more efficient Clipper ships in 1840, however, the use of this road lessened.

The southern trade route, which was discovered by the Portuguese in the 15th century, actually introduced England to tea.  This dangerous and long voyage traveled from China through Java to Europe around the Cape of Good Hope up the coast of Africa to Europe.  It was these very same Portuguese and Dutch traders who first imported tea … “te” … into Europe.  Regular shipments of “te” had begun reaching England by 1610.  And with the use of Clipper ships, traveling at over 250 miles a day, the race was on.

So, if you lived along the Northern route and into the Middle East, your beverage of choice was “cha” taken from the Mandarin name.  If you lived along the Southern route and into Europe, your beverage of choice was “te” taken from the Min name.  But regardless of where you live and whether you refer to this wonderful elixir as  thé in Paris …or in Rome … chay in Moscow … or chai in Nairobi, just know that you are enjoying the oldest and most popular beverage in the world.

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References:  Wikipedia, History of Tea, Trade Routes, Siam teas, Mental Floss
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GENDER INEQUALITY in TEA?

I was reading an interesting article the other day about the perceived femininity of “tea” …  with which I had to agree.  In this country, except for the ready-to-drink bottled iced tea products, advertising is targeted primarily to women over the age of 35.  If you ask someone to describe an image of “tea drinking”, they’ll probably describe two women sitting at a table drinking from bone china tea cups and saucers, perhaps sharing a plate of cookies.  Mention “tea” to most people and you’re likely to hear “when I’m not feeling well, I’ll have a cup” … “my mother used to give it to me when I had a cold” … “no thanks, I’m a coffee drinker”.

Tea is still perceived to be a ‘snobby’ or ‘aristocratic’ beverage.  Tea houses also continue to be perceived as feminine ‘women-owned’ and operated establishments for the sole enjoyment of tea for women by women.  Unfortunately, many men I know will not accept an invitation to a tea house, because of that perceived femininity.

Sadly, tea does have a feminine image … in this country.  Around the world, however, it is completely different.  In India, China and Sri Lanka, tea is a male-dominated industry.  For the most part, tea plantations are owned by corporations, managed primarily by men.  Although women have begun to crack the glass ceiling a bit, auction houses are still dominated by men.  The highly-regarded profession of tea tasting is another male-dominated segment of the tea industry.  You may see men in the fields transporting the freshly plucked leaves, but it is women who are in the fields plucking the leaf.  You’d be hard pressed to see a woman manager at any of these plantations.  The heavy equipment in the factories are all operated by men while the women sit at tables sorting the leaf.

Visiting a tea sorting room in China.

Again, in every other country, tea is prepared by men, shared and enjoyed by men.  There is no ‘perceived femininity’.  In the middle East, haggling over a purchase doesn’t even begin until the tea is served.  Chaiwallahs in India are men who each day prepare and serve this spicy, rich elixir.  The American Revolution began with the Sons of Liberty making a political statement by throwing crates of tea into Boston Harbor.  In Japan, Samurai warriors were masters of the Chanoyu tea ceremony, brewing tea before discussing important matters of state.  The “mustache cup” was invented during Victorian times so that men who sported virile, elegantly-shaped mustaches could drink their tea without the fear of the wax melting.


In her 1951 book,  A Thirst for Empire: How Tea Shaped the Modern World, after surveying men and women, in this country, of all ages , author Erika Rappaport reported that 72% of them “believed tea was for women.”   Sadly, that perceived femininity of tea still exists.  So why is it in this country, in order to have men drink tea, the feeling is that we need to create either a ‘manly-blend’ of tea, or we need to have a marketing campaign to convince men that tea isn’t ‘for women only’.  Well, it has happened.

After doing a little research to see if there were any “man-only” tea blends available, I came across two, which I found interesting.  (I’m sure there are others.)  One product is pretty straight forward, with the masculine name of Man Tea.  Yup, a full-bodied blend, packaged for and with an advertising campaign targeted specifically to … men.  There will be no confusion with this message:  “Man Tea is designed for those looking to increase their physical strength and health … increasing stamina and strength, enhancing energy, calming digestion, etc.”

Another new tea with a very masculine-sounding name is Ekön, “the first ever functional tea line designed for men.”  What is Ekön’s message?  Providing men with the opportunity to drink loose leaf tea “without the stigma, the embarrassment, or the feeling that you’re less of a man.”   With blends called “Clean Machine”, “Pound Hacker” and “Dayholic”, they’re obviously trying to appeal to the testosterone-building male.

Over the years I think many other companies have tried to target the male-tea drinker, in the hopes of building that base.  The only product which appears to have gained mass appeal is the ready-to-drink iced tea market.  Arnold Palmer certainly has crossed the gender barrier with his now hugely popular iced tea line.  Lipton has tried over the years with lesser success with Dallas Cowboys quarterback, Don Meredith, as the spokesperson.

I can certainly expound on all the health benefits of tea (rich in antioxidants and polyphenols), and why everyone should be drinking it … regardless of gender, age, or physical limitations.  But, this discussion was purely on whether there is gender inequality in “tea”.  And, yes, I believe, in this country, the perception does exist.  What do you think?
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CAFFEINE

This site is about ‘tea‘, as well as ‘toast‘ and ‘travel‘.  But, it seems lately I haven’t posted much about the actual beverage ‘tea‘.  Many people think this is a site about food only.  Actually, it was my love for ‘tea‘ and the closing of my tea business which prompted me to start this blog.  I think I still had much more to say on the subject but my audience was gone.  Well, I haven’t stopped talking about ‘tea‘ yet.

I do realize that I still live in that ‘tea world’, a world in which most people do not live.  So when I overhear someone saying ‘yeah, I can’t drink tea because it has too much caffeine‘, or ‘did you know tea has more caffeine than coffee?‘ I have to step away from the conversation, because it still makes me a little crazy.  I feel compelled to set the record straight once more … TEA does not have more caffeine than coffee.  In the most simplistic of terms … ” A cup of tea has HALF the caffeine as a cup of coffee.”

Not enough information for you?  Okay, then here’s my CAFFEINE 101.

Camellia Sinensis plant

Where does caffeine come from?  Well, Mother Nature is responsible for caffeine.  She came up with a natural way to protect over 60 plants from destructive leaf, nut and seed-eating predators.  When these hungry, little insects try to eat these plants they get a mouthful of this bitter organic compound.  For the most part, these plants originated from Asia, Africa and South America, which, of course, is where the trees which give us coffee, cocoa and tea originated.  At this point, I am assuming everyone knows tea (not herbal beverages like chamomile, mint, rooibos, hibiscus, etc.) comes from the camellia sinensis plant, which originated in Asia.

Caffeine Structure

Now we’ve established that caffeine is natural.  It can, however, be ‘manipulated’ and it can also be ‘harvested’.  In the beverage we love so much, there are several factors which determine tea’s caffeine content.  In today’s modern world, it begins with the propagation of the bush.  Plants grown from clones can produce twice as much caffeine as bushes from seeds.  Nitrogen fertilizer can also add another 10% to the normal caffeine level.  From there, the caffeine content in the plant can vary according to the picking season. Teas plucked in cooler weather might produce less caffeine than those plucked in the fast growing hot months. Also, things as subtle as the location of the leaf on the stem, or whether its an unfurled bud, can also affect the level of caffeine.  And let’s not forget that the longer the infusion (the longer the leaves sit in the water), the greater the caffeine content.  Did you know that tea bags, which contain broken leaves, fannings and dust, produce an infusion with far more caffeine than loose leaf tea?

Uber-smart Nigel Melican, research scientist and founder of Teacraft, Ltd., says it best Caffeine varies in the fresh green leaf depending on fineness of pluck. For any tea, be it black, green or white, the caffeine is highest in the bud. Silver needle (white tea) is 100% bud and has the highest caffeine content.  If your white tea is 100% bud then it’s going to be one-third higher in caffeine content than green tea made from two leaves and a bud.”

Learning how to properly pluck tea in China.

Please understand we’re not talking about astronomically high amounts of caffeine … perhaps a variance of 8-10% (which might be just enough to keep some people up at night).  The average tea drinker consumes about 180 mg of caffeine per day as compared to the average coffee drinker’s 330 mg per day (far more if they drink robust coffee such as Starbucks).

Upon drinking this naturally-occurring substance, it is absorbed into the small intestine and within 45 minutes is distributed throughout your body.  Yes, it is a stimulant .  And, yes, it has been shown to increase alertness and concentration, quell headaches (which is why some pharmaceutical companies ‘harvest’ caffeine) and it does speed reaction time.  It also increases digestive juices in the stomach (always served after a meal in Asia).  Although it does not dehydrate the body, it does stimulate the kidneys, which helps the body eliminate toxins.  If caffeine keeps you up at night, avoid drinking it four to five hours before bed (which is the amount of time it takes for the caffeine to work its way out of your system).

For most of us, caffeine really shouldn’t be a concern.  High amounts of caffeine, however, can absolutely have a negative affect on some people.  If you are on medication which is affected by caffeine, or if your doctor is asking you to cut caffeine out of your diet, switch to a decaffeinated tea or a caffeine-free herbal.  (Remember, caffeine is not present in herbals unless they are blended with tea leaves.)  Always consult with your doctor if you have any questions about caffeine’s effects upon your health.

There is much more to say on the subject of caffeine, but I think I’ve gone on enough for the average person.  The next time someone tells me ‘tea has more caffeine than coffee’, I hope you’ll realize that, at that moment, I will be doing everything in my power not to go on a rant … as I’ve done here!  And, for everyone who may still be confused … ” a cup of tea has HALF the caffeine as a cup of coffee.”

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References:  Cha DaoCoffee and Health, Wikipedia, Villanova University,

Where Have All the Tea Rooms Gone?

My first visit to a tea room was in London in 1986.  During that trip, I visited as many as I could, from the grand Afternoon Tea hotel experience to the simple, unassuming village repast.  I took what I learned and incorporated it into my business – serving tea to our guests.  They loved it.  And the business flourished.

My next visit to a tea room was in this country, ten years later (I had been busy, very busy).  What I didn’t realize, or perhaps had forgotten, was how much I had enjoyed afternoon tea.  It was relaxing … refreshing … and, yes, even rejuvenating.  I know.  I know.  It’s those three “r’s”, but it really was true.  Was it the tea, the rituals which surround tea, or was it the camaraderie  of being with like-minded friends, sharing food and an experience?  I’m not sure, but, from that moment on, I knew I had found my “happy place”.

An acquaintance soon became a good friend, especially after I found out she and her friends had formed a “tea club”.  Each month they would travel to a different tea room, as a group, and share in the tea experience.  Of course, that didn’t prevent any of them from visiting their local tea rooms at every opportunity.  Immediately, I became a proud member of the tea club.

TEA TIME Magazine

As a group, we’d do our research:  tea magazines, websites, chat groups, word-of-mouth.  We’d be there for the grand opening of the newest tea room, as well as always revisiting past favorites.  There were so many tea rooms to choose from.  We traveled all around New England and then up and down the East Coast.  If the distance was more than 100 miles, we would organize an entire weekend around one or two tea room visits.  The weekends always included staying at a local bed and breakfast, antique shopping and, of course, lots of good food.  Repeat tea room visits ended with our befriending the owners and their staff.  They now becoming “tea friends”.  Our group and tea family grew.

But, no more!

For years, we enjoyed these afternoon tea sojourns … until suddenly … we ran out of tea rooms!  At one time, we could choose from hundreds, now there are perhaps one or two.  I understand tea rooms are, in reality, a restaurant and restaurants are a hard business, a very hard business.  I understand the profit margins are very low.  I understand the owners want to retire.  I understand there’s no interest in the next generation to take over or start up a tea room.  I understand real estate is very expensive.  The reality is I have been a business owner … and I understand.  But, I don’t like it.

Wenham Tea House, Wenham, MA

Did you know tea rooms were the first “women owned” businesses in the U.S.?  At the turn of the century American hotels were mimicking their European counterparts by serving Afternoon Tea in their restaurants, but this was not something a woman could participate in without a male escort.  Unescorted women would not be served.

In the cities and the countryside enterprising women began realizing that women of all classes wanted the ability to socialize outside of the home together, without the required male escort.  They also knew that we were becoming a more mobile and motorized society.  Women in the villages and small towns began turning their front parlors, or shed, or back kitchen into an inviting area where they could serve road-weary travelers a hearty cuppa and something to go along with it.  In the city, middle class women opened their front parlors for other women to gather and enjoy each other’s company without the required ‘man by their side’.  The American tearoom was born.

Tea at Charters Towers, 1880, Courtesy of New Old Stock

These businesses were important.  This was the first opportunity women had to start their own businesses, earning an income, without leaving their homes.  By adding handicrafts and baked goods made by the townspeople, the tearoom also offered a means for others to earn money.  Tea rooms played an important role in our society, our culture and to women.  But now its 2018 and everything is changing.  Why?  Are we all so busy that we haven’t the time or the interest to support this traditional women-owned business?  Are we too sophisticated, or too jaded?  Do we have to be stimulated by something new all the time?  What has happened to the value and importance of traditions?

I can’t stress enough how important it is for you to support your local tea room … woman owned or not.  Small businesses are an important part of our heritage.  Do we really want every shop, restaurant, business in every town to look like the every other shop, restaurant or business?

There are a few tea rooms left around the New England area.  Not many.  I can’t recommend enough that you visit them.  Each is unique, wonderful and an experience you’ll always treasure.  Do it now before they too are gone forever!

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Tea Rooms to Visit in the Greater Boston area
FANCY THAT
WENHAM TEA HOUSE
BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY
THE TEA LEAF
THE DUNBAR TEA ROOM
HEATH’S TEA ROOM
COZY TEA CART

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TEA in SPAIN

I really should title this post “Searching for Tea in Spain” … because I was hard pressed on our recent trip to find any.  No, I’m not talking about the obligatory selection of tea bags sitting next to the carafe of hot water at the breakfast buffet in the hotel.  And, of course, if you ordered tea at a cafe or restaurant, you were served tea … sometimes even in a teapot.  What I was hoping to discover was a love for, a connection with, or history of  … ‘tea’.

We started in the capital of Spain and the third largest city in Europe, Madrid.  An exciting city, full of vitality and passion, and now well on its way to shaking off the financial woes it experienced during the past decade, but even in the heavily traveled tourist areas, no outward signs of “tea” existed.  What was I looking for?  Perhaps a retail store, tea room, even a tea display or sign … something that beckoned the tea drinker.  Nothing.

We then traveled south into the magnificent area of Andalusia with its vast savannahs filled with olive groves and vineyards, surrounded by the majestic Sierra mountain ranges.  Our visits to the white-washed villages of Cordoba, Toledo, and Ronda were breathtaking … but no ‘tea’.

We marveled at the Roman ruins in Merida, the medieval walled city of Carceres, and hoped to see a bullfight in Seville, but didn’t.  We climbed the narrow stone steps into the cathedral towers, got lost in the maze of winding alleyways, clapped to the beat of the flamenco guitar, and ate tapas, authentic tapas, some spicy, a few not, some raw, others fried … but no ‘tea’.

We strolled through the lively gypsy neighborhoods, wondered at the priceless art collections, and indulged in an occasional afternoon siesta.  We attended the prestigious annual patios festival, took photographs of the vibrantly festooned balconies, and dunked our churros into hot, thick dark chocolate.  We drank red wines and white wines from the local vineyards; rich, red, fruity sangria, and syrupy sweet sherry over ice … but we didn’t drink ‘tea’.

Until we came to Granada.

Granada is one of the most important cities in Spain’s rich history.  Settled by the Phoenicians until the Romans overtook it in the 3rd century; by the 5th century Rome had fallen and Granada was then ruled by the Visigoths.  The Visigoths held this area for a few hundred years until Muslim forces coming from Morocco across the Strait of Gibralta, conquered it around 1010.  The Muslims remained in power, living side-by-side with Christians and Jews, until 1492 (hmmmm, that date sounds familiar), when Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand took control.  Why is any of this important?  Because during the Muslim rule, the city became one of the richest cities in medieval  Europe.  Trade routes from Morocco were open and the artistic and scientific communities flourished.  With these trade routes came silk, cotton, paper and … ‘tea’.

Yes, “TEA” is alive and well in Granada!   Although the Muslims were forced out of the city by the 15th century, their influence has remained.  Within the old Moorish district of Granada, known as the Albayzin, there are Arabic tea houses or teterias.   A narrow, cobblestone paved street called “Calle Caldereria Nueva” is as close to a Moroccan souk as you can find, crammed full of trinkets, rugs, lanterns and it is dotted with tea houses!  No, you will not find bone china cups and saucers.  There’s not a scone or tea cake anywhere around.  But what you will find are lavishly decorated, intimate cafes serving loose leaf tea.

Calle Caldereria Nueva

So while sitting on a long, pillow-topped divan, with heavy drapery covered walls, in a Moroccan-inspired tearoom, sipping a hot steaming cup of mint tea, what I learned was, in Spain, unless you are visiting Granada, it is “coffee country”.

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References:  Wikipedia, Andalucia, Love Granada, Trip Savvy,
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